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The feijoa plant (Acca sellowiana), also called akka feijoa, or akka sellova, is represented by not very tall trees and evergreen shrubs, it is a species of the genus Akka of the Myrtle family. Some experts distinguish feijoa into a separate genus. This species was named after the Portuguese naturalist João da Silva Feijo, it was he who found this plant in Brazil at the end of the 19th century. The specific epithet was given to this plant in honor of the German naturalist Friedrich Sellow, who studied the Brazilian flora. In natural conditions, feijoa can be found in Colombia, Brazil, Uruguay and northern Argentina. Feijoa in nature is found only in the subtropics, while in the tropics they grow extremely poorly. On the territory of Europe, such a plant appeared only in 1980.Today, this plant is cultivated not only in South America, but also in the Crimea, Abkhazia, Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Dagestan, Krasnodar Territory of the Russian Federation, Australia, New Zealand, Italy, France, Greece, Portugal, Spain and the Pacific coast of the United States and the Caucasus.
Brief description of cultivation
- Bloom... In spring or summer, while its duration is about 20 days.
- Landing... The seeds are planted in a container in the last days of winter or in the first weeks of spring.
- Illumination... The light should be bright but diffused.
- Temperature regime... Normal room temperature.
- Watering... Watering should be bottom (through the pan) and systematic.
- Air humidity... The humidity level should be higher than normal room humidity. In winter, during the heating period, the bushes need to be moistened with a spray bottle every day in the evening with lukewarm water.
- Fertilizer... You need to feed it systematically 1 time in half a month with organic matter (solution of bird droppings (1:15) or mullein (1:10)). And mineral fertilizers can be used for this only if absolutely necessary.
- Dormant period... When grown indoors, this period is not pronounced.
- Transfer... Before the bushes are 3 years old, they need to be transplanted once a year. Adult specimens should be transplanted much less often, or rather, once every 5 years, but the top layer of the soil mixture in the container must be replaced every year.
- Pruning... In late autumn or at the beginning of spring, after the height of the bushes is 25 to 30 centimeters, they will need to be shortened by 1/3. Pruning for crown shaping and sanitary pruning should be done at the same time as needed.
- Reproduction... Cutting and seed method.
- Harmful insects... False shields and red spider mites.
- Diseases... Gray rot.
- Properties... The composition of the fruits of such a plant includes substances that are very useful for the human body.
Feijoa is a spreading and very large shrub or tree, the height of which is about four meters. Densely branched but compact root system is superficial. The surface of the trunk is covered with a brownish-green rough bark. Criss-cross opposite short-petiolate leaf plates have a pinnate venation and an oval shape, they are whole-edged, and leathery to the touch, often drooping. The front surface of the leaves is smooth, dark green, and the back is pubescent and grayish-green. Axillary four-membered bisexual flowers are paired, single, and sometimes form a small corymbose inflorescence. They have a large number of stamens - 50–80 pieces, white petals, as they approach the base, change their color to pink. The flowering period is approximately 20 days. For pollination, such a plant needs insects. The fruit is a fleshy juicy berry of a dark green color, its shape can be wide-angle, cuboid or oval-elongated. In diameter, the fruits can reach 15-50 mm, and their length varies from 20 to 70 mm. The seeds are located inside the berries, while they are surrounded by a translucent pulp. The smell and taste of such a berry at the same time is similar to pineapple, kiwi and strawberries. Their peel has a bumpy surface, and its color varies from dark green to greenish-yellow. In some cases, the peel has a purple-purple bloom of anthocyanin.
Feijoa - home cultivation and care.
Growing feijoa at home
Today, flower growers are increasingly trying to decorate their home with exotic plants, which include feijoa. If you wish, you can try to grow it from the bone with your own hands. After you get a ripe feijoa, the peel of which should have a pale yellow color, it must be placed in a place where it is always warm for ripening. After the berry is very soft, cut it open and remove the seeds along with the pulp. Take a thick cloth and spread the pulp on it, and then rinse off the mucus under running water. Dry the fabric along with the seeds, and then sow them in pots with drainage holes, at the bottom of which there is a layer of sand or expanded clay, and they should be filled with a soil mixture, which includes river sand and turf soil (1: 1). In order to facilitate sowing seeds, experienced flower growers recommend combining them with a small amount of sand. When sowing is finished, the seeds should be lightly pressed into the soil mixture, without sprinkling them on top. Then the crops are moistened from a sprayer using a pinkish solution of potassium permanganate. After that, the container must be covered with glass (film) on top and transferred to a place where it is warm and good lighting. Until the seedlings appear, the substrate in the container must be moistened from the sprayer as it dries, while all condensation must be removed from the shelter.
Most often, the first shoots appear after 4 weeks or a little earlier. As soon as the plants appear, it is necessary to pull out all the weakened ones without tightening. For seedlings to grow well, they need a lot of bright light, but it must be diffused. In this regard, it is best to sow such a crop in the last winter or first spring weeks. If the sowing is carried out in the autumn or in the first half of the winter period, then the crops will need additional lighting, since at this time the daylight hours are too short. Install a phytolamp or any other lamp at a height of 25 centimeters above the container. But remember that plants need reliable protection from direct sunlight.
During the formation of 2 to 4 pairs of true leaf plates at seedlings, they will need to pick at individual small pots. For this, a soil mixture is used, which includes leaf humus, rotted manure, sod land and coarse river sand (2: 0.5: 3: 0.5). Such a transplant helps to accelerate the development of the plant root system. At first, seedlings are characterized by rapid growth, but for the first time such bushes will be able to bear fruit only for 5 or 6 years of growth.
Such a plant is distinguished by its moisture-loving nature. If the clod of earth in the pot dries up, then because of this, the feijoa can throw off the foliage, then the dying off of the root system and branches begins. In this regard, watering should be carried out systematically through the pallet. It is not necessary to pour out excess liquid from the pan, since after a while it will be able to be absorbed into the soil mixture. In the cold season, when the air is dry by heating devices, the bush must be regularly moistened with a spray bottle with slightly warm water, this is done every day in the evening.
During active growth, the bush needs systematic feeding. In this regard, feijoa is fed throughout the year 1 time in half a month. At the same time, experts recommend using organic fertilizers, not mineral complex fertilizers. This culture most of all prefers a solution of poultry manure (1:15) or mullein (1:10). Of the minerals, you can use a superphosphate solution (1 tsp per liter of water), it must be boiled, and after the mixture becomes cold, it is diluted with water (1: 2). Of all the fertilizers containing potassium, feijoa responds best to ash extraction: take 1 large spoonful of ash from burnt deciduous trees or grass per liter of water, leave the mixture for 7 days to infuse. Use potassium, phosphate and nitrogen fertilizers alternately. Fertilize the substrate only after watering.
Such a fast-growing plant, before it turns 3 years old, must be transplanted once a year. In this case, a soil mixture is used, which includes sand, peat, humus, sod and leafy soil (1: 1: 1: 1: 1). An older bush is transplanted into a new container at least once every couple of years. Old bushes need replanting only once every 5 years. When replanting a bush, you can leave the old soil mixture on the root system, but only if it does not contain pathogenic microorganisms and harmful insects, or if it has not sour. Feijoa should be transplanted by the transshipment method, while be very careful, since its root system is very fragile.
When grown indoors, the height of the bush can reach about 6 m or even higher, so it must be cut off. If you cut the tree correctly, then this will not be able to negatively affect its fruiting, but it will add spectacularity to its crown. Pruning is carried out in early spring or late autumn. To do this, use a very sharp pruner or a knife, which should be disinfected in advance with medical alcohol or for 30 minutes. boil it in plain water. After the height of the bush is from 25 to 30 centimeters, it is shortened by 1/3 part. Formative as well as sanitary pruning is carried out only when necessary. To begin with, you need to cut off all growths that depart from the trunk at an angle of less than 60–70⁰, and also cut out all competing branches and stems. Injured, weakened, dried and damaged branches by disease or pests must also be removed.
In order to give the plant the shape of a tree, all branches and shoots must be constantly removed from the bottom ¼ of the trunk. The fact is that a rich harvest will not grow on them, but thanks to such pruning, the bush will become a beautiful tree. Further pruning consists only in the systematic removal of root growth. When pruning branches, experts advise setting the blade at the pruner at an angle of 45 degrees, while all the cuts must be made in the direction from the trunk, and only very short stumps should remain, they will soon dry out. After cutting, the cut sites must be treated with a solution of a fungicidal preparation.
How to grow feijoa at home. Garden World site
Feijoa pests and diseases
Feijoa is distinguished by a fairly high resistance to diseases. If such a plant is provided with good care and suitable conditions, then it may never get sick at all. If you water it incorrectly or take care of it poorly, then this increases the likelihood that the bush will be affected by gray rot. Leaf spot affects such a tree extremely rarely.
If feijoa is affected by a fungal disease, it should be treated with a Bordeaux mixture. If gray rot appears on the bush, then the affected areas are carefully cut out, while always capturing healthy tissue, then the plant is well sprayed with a solution of a fungicidal preparation. But it should be borne in mind that if you do not start watering the bush correctly, then gray rot will reappear.
False shields and red spider mites can harm such a tree. As a rule, ticks most often injure young shoots and foliage. To destroy them, use Keltan's solution (2 grams per liter of water). It is recommended to spray the plant in the evening, since if the sun's rays hit the wet foliage, burns may form on it. After treatment, the agent retains its activity for about 40 days; therefore, repeated treatment is not necessary. In order to prevent the bush, you should systematically arrange a shower, the fact is that ticks do not start in a humid environment.
False shields prefer to settle along the median vein on the front surface of the leaf plates. The solution of Karbofos is highly effective in the fight against such a pest (for 1 liter of water from 5 to 6 grams). The resulting solution is carefully sprayed on the foliage on both sides. To get rid of such a pest, one treatment will not be enough, for this they will need 2 or 3, while the break between procedures should be 5-7 days.
For reproduction of feijoa, the method of grafting is used, as well as generative (seed). For harvesting cuttings, half-ripe shoots with 3 internodes are used. The cuts should be treated with a root-forming agent. Their planting for rooting is carried out in a light soil mixture; for this, vermiculite, well-washed river sand, coconut soil, perlite or flower soil mixture are suitable, while it is combined with vermiculite or perlite (1: 1). From above, each stalk is covered with a glass jar or a cut plastic bottle, while the container with them must be transferred to a warm place (from 23 to 25 degrees). The rooting process can last for more than one month, while there is a high probability that some of the cuttings will not have roots.
Types and varieties of feijoa
In the middle latitudes, feijoa varieties of foreign or Crimean selection are popular among flower growers. For instance:
- Superba... This plant has very large, fragrant and almost round fruits.
- Coolidge... In such a cultivar, created by foreign breeders, the fruits have an oval-elongated shape.
- Light... This variety is one of the most popular. The shape of the fruit is oval-elongated or oval-round; they are covered with a bumpy skin of a dark green color with a blush. As the berries ripen, the peel becomes lighter. The pulp of such fruits is very tasty and somewhat resembles strawberries.
- Nikitskaya... Outwardly, such a plant looks like the Light feijoa variety. The taste of the pulp of the berries is sweet-sour refreshing.
- Lumpy... There are few seeds inside the lumpy, rounded berries.
- Early aromatic... The berries are covered with a smooth peel, their pulp is fragrant and tender, with a sweet-sour taste. There are a lot of seeds inside them.
- Firstborn 120... This medium-late variety has not very large berries of various shapes, which are covered with a greenish-yellow rind. There are a lot of seeds inside the berries.
Also popular among flower growers are such varieties as: feijoa Nikitskaya 42, Nikitskaya 3, Crimean early, Yaltinskaya, Andre and Choiseash.
Feijoa properties: harm and benefit
Useful properties of feijoa
Feijoa berries are delicious and incredibly healthy for the human body. They include iodine, zinc, manganese, copper, iron, phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, calcium, sodium, malic and folic acids, essential oils with strawberry and pineapple aroma, vitamins C, PP, B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, as well as easily digestible fats and proteins. Such berries contain a lot of iodine, even more than seafood.The largest amount of such an element is found in those fruits that have grown on trees located near the sea: in 100 grams of such berries there is 35 mg of iodine, while the daily norm for an adult is only 0.15 mg.
Experts advise including feijoa in your diet for vitamin deficiency, atherosclerosis, colds, sluggish intestinal motility, diseases of the digestive system, gout, Graves' disease, constipation and pyelonephritis. Such fruits contribute to an increase in hemoglobin and a decrease in blood cholesterol levels, as well as an improvement in memory and blood composition.
These berries are also used externally, for example, they are used to make face masks that nourish and rejuvenate the skin, as well as soothe sore areas. The third part of the berry must be finely chopped and combined with 2 large tablespoons of cottage cheese, egg yolk and 1 large spoonful of olive oil. The resulting mixture is evenly applied to the surface of the neck and face, after a third of an hour it is washed off.
Feijoa - benefits, recipes, how to eat feijoa
People who are overweight and diabetics are not allowed to eat feijoa because it contains a lot of sugar. Still, such fruits cannot be eaten with individual intolerance to the product. With great care, they should be eaten by those people who have an overactive thyroid gland.
Even if you have no contraindications, you cannot eat a lot of feijoa at a time, as this can cause heart palpitations, temperature changes, anxiety, and in some cases a nervous breakdown. However, in some people, overeating of such a product leads to a depression and a significant decrease in performance.
It is better not to eat cow's milk and this berry together. Children should not eat too much feijoa. Berries that have been stored for more than 7 days should not be eaten.
Useful properties of feijoa
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Useful properties of feijoa
Useful properties of feijoa
Feijoa is no longer as exotic as it was recently. Its tropical trees can be found in the Crimea and the Caucasus, Azerbaijan and Turkmenistan.
The beneficial properties of feijoa gain their strength when the fruits reach their highest degree of ripeness. However, mature feijoa fruits are very difficult to find outside of their growing area - they are very soft and quickly deteriorate during transportation. But you can fight this - buy unripe fruits and give them time to reach already in the conditions of your home.
The beneficial properties of feijoa are primarily due to the presence of iodine. Its fruits are no less than fish and other seafood. Therefore, feijoa is often recommended for use in diseases of the thyroid gland.
Feijoa can be used to strengthen the immune system, as it contains a significant amount of ascorbic acid, amino acids and sucrose.
Feijoa peel is also prized - it is a natural source of antioxidants. It is usually dried and used to flavor drinks and other foods. Feijoa peel is tart and unsuitable for human consumption when fresh.
The fruits of this evergreen tree contain a wide range of vitamins, including most of the B vitamins, as well as vitamin PP and minerals.
The essential oils of these fruits are also useful. They are used when the body is damaged by viral infections. And with the help of the pulp of the fruit in cosmetology, they get rid of skin inflammations and other cosmetic imperfections.
Feijoa can be eaten in any form: fresh, dried, mashed potatoes, jams and fruit salads.
To reproduce feijoa at home, "classic" options are suitable - cuttings and seeds, as well as grafts. Seed is preferable, although for many growers it is a controversial statement, if when growing self-pollinated feijoa, the seeds obtained bear the characteristics of the parent organism, then in cross-pollinated varieties, both parents are involved in harvesting. Specimens that retain the biological properties of the mother plant are not always obtained from seed material.
Seed reproduction of feijoa
The seeds are bought in the store or taken from fully ripe fruits, but not overripe. Long-stored fruits are of dubious value for breeding purposes of feijoa. It is necessary to separate the seeds from the jelly-like pulp. To do this, cut off 1/5 of the fruit with a sharp knife from the side of the stalk and squeeze the mass out on a saucer. A few seeds are thoroughly washed from the remnants of the pulp in a pink solution of potassium permanganate (potassium permanganate) and dried for 5-6 days.
Sowing dates for feijoa are from January to March. Selected seeds are placed in shallow cuvettes filled with a light substrate. Leafy soil, fresh peat and sand are good. Sprinkle the soil on top with a layer of 5 mm of sand, do not water it, but moisten it well from a sprayer.
Three weeks pass from sowing to sprouts, in winter - 1-2 weeks more. At the four-leaf stage, plants can be dived and planted one at a time. In this case, a more fertile and heavy composition will serve as a substrate, which is best purchased in a flower pavilion nearby.
To accelerate growth, seedlings of feijoa are fed with humic fertilizers, an extract of wood ash, and fermented green nettles.
From rooted cuttings, full-fledged plants develop, slightly differing in quality from the parent specimen. Cuttings are cut from semi-lignified shoots in the middle of the bush.
Cuttings with a length of half a pencil are used as planting material, on which the leaves are removed, leaving the upper pair. Even these two leaves can be cut off a third - this is a necessary precaution to reduce evaporation from the leaf surface and facilitate rooting. Before planting, the cuttings are placed for 16 hours in a solution of heteroauxin, which stimulates growth.
The substrate is prepared from leaf humus in half with river sand. Sometimes good results are obtained when rooting in wet sand. An ordinary flower pot is filled with a substrate, into which feijoa cuttings are buried 2/3 of the length. The container with plantings is watered, the surface is powdered with ash against the formation of fungal microorganisms and placed on the window sill with diffused daylight. Cuttings are covered with plastic, transparent disposable dishes or polyethylene.
The optimum temperature for rooting is +25 `C. Keeping in a "mini-greenhouse" will provide the cuttings with a constantly moist habitat. Once a day, the film is removed for short-term ventilation of the plants and sprayed with water. When the roots appear, the cuttings are transplanted. The vases are filled with the same substrate that was prepared for the seedlings.
It will take about a month for rooting. Can be carried out breeding feijoa by cuttings and in the fall, in which case the process will take 2 months.
To obtain strong, productive seedlings, the illumination of the plants is regulated, it should be sufficiently intense, while diffused light is preferable.
Feijoa is transplanted every season for 2-3 years, for which they take fresh potting soil and slightly larger containers. Then, they practice only transshipment of adult plants into larger containers (as the root and aerial parts grow). Transferred with a lump of earth, and add a fresh fertile mixture to the tub. During manipulation, you will need to cut off thin and damaged roots, cut off some shoots. The crown can be formed at a seedling height of 25-30 cm. Skeletal branches begin to grow well when a third of the shoots are removed. In the future, such a radical pruning is not needed, sanitary measures are enough - removing weak and dry twigs.
When transplanting or transshipping feijoa, experienced growers remove root shoots for better fruiting of the plant, although this is a full-fledged propagation material. It is only required to separate the "babies" without damaging the maternal root system and the cuttings itself.
A plant grown from a cuttings or shoots forms fruiting in the 3rd year. If you carry out seed breeding feijoa, you will have to wait until the beginning of fruiting for 5 years.
Not everyone is familiar with this interesting plant. Feijoa in nature is a fairly tall shrub that can stretch up to five meters. This culture grows in the subtropics, and is characterized by beautiful flowering and tasty fruits.
Recently cultivation of feijoa came to our country, settling both in homemade greenhouses and at home.
The easiest and most affordable way of breeding is to plant seeds, which, by the way, can be obtained from the fruit purchased in the store. The main thing is that it is fresh and ripe. Reproduction is also practiced using cuttings.
To obtain seeds, part of the fruit is cut off at the tip. Then the seeds are carefully removed along with the gel-like pulp and placed in a container with warm water. The seeds must be rinsed thoroughly so that they separate from the pulp, and then dried from moisture.
Feijoa seeds are planted in a small container filled with a substrate of the following composition: turf soil, humus and a little sand. The landing is not deep.
Watering the seeds until germination and formation of foliage is carried out using a sprayer. By no means a watering can, and, moreover, not a continuous stream.
Seeds germinate within six to eight weeks, after which they are left in the school for another three to four weeks, and then transplanted into the main container for growing. Each shoot must be planted separately. However, since most feijoa varieties need cross-pollination to harvest. All plants are best kept together or in pairs.
Reproduction by cuttings is much less common. To harvest cuttings, only the branches that have already formed the bark are cut off. They are cut up to ten centimeters long, with a pair of buds at the top. Slices are performed at an angle of 45 °. The cuttings are kept in a weak solution of heteroauxin for several hours, and then planted in a school and watered. Rooting takes about eight weeks.
Because feijoa grows in the subtropics, just like avocado, it requires a lot of light and warmth. The range of acceptable temperatures is 25-30 ° C. In the summer, the southern side will fully provide the plant with light, but from autumn to spring, feijoa must be supplemented. Otherwise, yellowing and foliage may fall.
The plant obtained from seeds begins to bear fruit in the sixth year of the growing season. At the same time, as practice shows, growing feijoa at home allows you to get fruits that are in no way inferior to those grown in greenhouses or on plantations.
Home Feijoa Care
This culture is very light-loving, therefore it is necessary to place it on a windowsill, the windows of which face south or southeast. To prevent leaves from falling off in the autumn and winter, you need to place a fluorescent lamp near the tree.
The formation of the crown is not the last role in the care. When the plant reaches a height of about 30 cm, the upper branches must be cut by 1/3 - for the correct formation and development of skeletal branches. Feijoa does not need subsequent pruning, you only need to occasionally remove dry weak branches. But in order for it to begin bearing fruit faster, you must not allow it to grow strongly. To do this, you need to cut off new shoots at the root.
Feijoa requires frequent moisture, the soil should never dry out. It is better to use settled water. A drainage hole must be made in the pot and a pallet must be placed. It is not necessary to drain the accumulating excess water: the plant then absorbs everything by itself. In winter, it is necessary to additionally humidify the air and spray the foliage.
The culture planted in the open field does not need additional feeding. But if it grows in a pot, it is necessary. Every 15 days, it must be fertilized with nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, alternating between them. Both inorganic and organic stimulants will work. They must be brought in all year round.
Feijoa is a tree that is not particularly capricious from the point of view of its cultivation at home, but requires patient regular maintenance. But after 3-4 years, the plant will thank its owner for the efforts, bringing tasty fruits rich in iodine and vitamins to the family table.
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